What are the principles that govern the behaviour of different States in relation to shared basins?

The principle of cooperation establishes a general obligation of riparian States to act jointly and in good faith in the management of shared water resources. The principle of ‘integrated management’ points to the duty of States to manage the basin as a unit, including that of surface and underground waters and any connected resources. The principle of sustainability implies the need to consider the waters of a shared basin within the particular context of the ecosystems of which they are part, in order to ensure a balance between environmental protection and use. The precautionary principle refers to the need to prevent, reduce or control damage or harm to the aquatic environment, even when there is no certainty that damage may be caused. The duty not to cause harm refers to a due diligence duty to avoid known risks that could result in damage to the basin’s resources. The participation principle establishes equitable, reasonable and sustainable use of the basin. It also refers to public participation in the management of the basin.